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Central America. Created for the Curious. Discover a city. Culture Trip Guides. Created with Sketch. San Francisco On the hills above the Bay, hippies and yuppies vie for space — and their city's identity.

Berlin Bright, bold ideas and a hunger for all things new fuel Germany's free-living capital. Beijing Symbols of an imperial past and monuments to a high-tech future collide in China's capital. Shanghai Even as China's finance hub speeds into the future, tradition persists in its narrow lanes. Hong Kong Chinese, British and indigenous influences fuse in a neon-lit metropolis unlike any other. Still, transporting bees presents some unique challenges.

"Pretend they're not there."

Like, if you stop on a warm day, your cargo might just buzz away. It happens , and when it does, beekeepers will try to save their wares. If the queen bee stays in the hive, which they normally do, the rest of the bees will buzz back. If a cleanup crew has to move the hives, or replace them, rounding up all the loose bees can be impossible.

Bees are generally loaded up for transportation at nighttime. But if you move the hive while the bees are active, they get confused and lost. Before being heaved onto the deck of an empty flatbed trailer, bees are often calmed down with smoke. You might imagine that would send them into an apocalyptic panic, but apparently it has the opposite effect.

Kind of.

The bees gorge themselves on honey, either in preparation for evacuation or just resignation that doomsday is near, and become significantly more docile than they usually are. With the bees toked out, about to palletized hives can be stacked onto a semi-truck trailer with a forklift. Multiply that by 25, bees per hive, and yeah, you could have more than 10,, on a truck easily.

Once the bees are rolling, their humans like to keep them in motion as much as possible during the day since the wind discourages them from going outside.

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Once again, I am realizing how bee-like my own existence is Also, if my house moved I would definitely get lost. If it rains or snows, that presents its own set of problems. And then also because of the weather that time of year January and February is a little more volatile. But even if beekeepers manage to keep their bees alive through the cold months, and get them on-and-off trucks safely, they still have to deal with bee bandits.

United Hemispheres Magazine | Hive Minded

Yes, beehive theft is a thing. But short of trying to topple the bee industry, it is possible for people to proactively be part of a pollination solution. Not all pollinating bees are honeybees that can fly five miles or get carted thousands of miles across the country. Some local pollinators might just hang out in your yard. And now that you know that, you might have some more research to do. Her father was a beekeeper in southeast Ohio. She keeps honey bees in the city, and has replaced her crabgrass front yard with pesticide-free pollinator flowers for her honey bees and native pollinators.

Her nonprofit experience includes work in the performing arts, housing and homelessness, foreclosure prevention, community development, and health and wellness. Affect regulatory processes of pesticide risk assessment, label, and enforcement. Provide advocacy, guidance and tools to document the detrimental effect of pesticides on pollinators.

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Raise awareness about the adverse impact of pesticides on pollinators critical to the supply of food and the ecosystem. Propolis is a pliable, resinous mixture that honey bees Apis mellifera create by mixing a variety of plant resins, saliva, and beeswax and which they apply to interior surfaces of their hives, namely at points of comb attachment and to seal up cracks and crevices on the interior side of hive walls. Greater propolis production is connected with improved hive health, and a new study finds a few simple methods beekeepers can employ to stimulate increased propolis production.

Propolis, a mass of plant resins built by honey bees inside their hives, has drawn attention in recent years partly because of its alleged but as yet unproven health benefits to humans. But, perhaps more important, it also shows health benefits to bees themselves. Created from resins and other oils and fats collected from trees, propolis helps preserve the structural integrity of a bee hive and protects against. Today, though, scientists and beekeepers have begun looking at encouraging propolis production to help sustain healthy hives. The team found that three surface modifications—plastic trap material on the hive wall interior, parallel saw cuts on hive wall interior, and brush-roughened wall interiors—were all equally capable of resulting in increased propolis production, compared to a fourth method, a control, in which the hive wall interiors we left unmodified.

The researchers divided 20 colonies into five apiary sites and randomly applied one of the three texture treatments or control to each colony.


Bees in the colonies foraged for propolis resins from plants common to the Appalachian Piedmont in the southeastern U. The researchers then measured extensiveness and depth of propolis deposits in the hives over time. Their results showed that any hive interior treatment significantly increased propolis deposition compared to a non-treatment control.

Sampling over time showed propolis hoarding and accumulation, as well. None of the texture treatments showed significantly different results from each other. While all treatments resulted in more propolis deposition, the researchers point to the roughened interior of the hive walls as the best method for encouraging deposition. In fact, leaving lumber naturally rough, with no planning or sanding, would provide a simple and effective surface for boosting propolis, they write. What you see in our pictures is the work of a steel brush. Naturally un-planed wood would be much rougher and, I would expect, even better at stimulating propolis deposition.

Other researchers have shown that propolis development has a strong effect on the members of the bee hive. These other investigations have shown that interior walls painted with propolis extract resulted in colonies with lower bacterial loads and with worker bees that expressed lower levels of immune gene expression.

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Sustained activation of immune genes comes at an energy cost, which can result in a reduction in brood numbers and pose a threat to overall colony health. Further studies have shown that reduced immune activation and therefore less energy spent on fighting infection comes from reduced pathogen loads in high-propolis colonies and not from immune suppression by propolis.

I believe encouraging propolis deposition is one more thing beekeepers can do to partner with biology instead of ignore it. For six weekends beginning Saturday, March 23 through Sunday, April 28, LACBA members will be on hand offering samples of a variety of local honeys. We will also have a 30 minute slot every day on the stage next to our Honey Bee Booth to talk about beekeeping. Honey bees, like all other living things, vary among themselves in traits such as temperament, disease resistance, and productivity.

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The environment has a large effect on differences among bee colonies for example, plants in different areas yield different honey crops , but the genetic makeup of a colony can also impact the characteristics that define a particular group. Beekeepers have long known that different genetic stocks have distinctive characteristics, so they have utilized different strains to suit their particular purpose, whether it be pollination, a honey crop, or bee production.

Such groups can be divided by species, race, region, population, or breeding line in a commercial operation. Wide variation exists within stocks as well as among them.

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Any generalities about a particular stock should be treated with caution, since there are always exceptions to the rule. Nonetheless, the long and vast experience of beekeepers allows some oversimplifications to be made in order to better understand the different types of bees available. The following is a brief overview of some of the more common commercially available honey bee stocks in the United States. Italian honey bees, of the subspecies Apis mellifera ligustica, were brought to the United States in They quickly became the favored bee stock in this country and remain so to this day.