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Vernon Square. In , Schumacher became its president. Younger men regularly frequented the club to drink, talk, or play billiards. This philanthropic institution, led by the brothers Cohen from to , followed a pattern of mercantile welfare activities that was well established in Bremen as well as Hamburg. It differed in one important respect, and that was the cooperation between Jews and gentiles, inconceivable in Bremen. While the funds of the society helped immigrants abroad, it reaffirmed patterns of social activity familiar from home.

Giving to those in need was considered a duty of a successful merchant. Charity to insolent German immigrants was Chalfant, Randolp W. It helped maintain the respectable image of the population on whose continued transportation to America Hanseatic success was founded.

In addition to their mercantile activities, the owners of the older and larger Hanseatic houses often held consulships for German states and directorships of banks.

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The latter activity attests to their social connections with native members of the Baltimore elite, while the former indicates strong connections home. He also served as the consul for Hamburg and Bremen. John C. The bonds between Hanseatic men rested on family connections, often through multiple intermarriages, and sometimes dating back generations. When Albert Schumacher arrived in the U.

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Their families had been neighbors in Bremen, and they both had been apprentices with the merchant house of H. Meier of Bremen. After Heineken returned to Bremen in , Schumacher ran their business alone, and took over the Bremish consulship previously held by Heineken. The chairman of the board of that company was the son of his former employer, like his father named Hermann Henrich Meier. No personal correspondence is extant, even though we know that Schumacher and H.

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Meier had been playmates in their childhood in the s. Summers during that decade brought together a group of boys who went on to become names in mercantile circles, as the Schumachers, Heinekens, and Meiers retreated from the city to their estates in Chalfant, Randolp W. Schwab and Hermann von Post. At another time, however, Schleiden expressed worry to Schwab because he had not heard from Schumacher in a while. Intermarriage provided the emotional bonds that invested business relations — even if founded on long personal acquaintance or even friendship — with a necessary element of higher purpose.

Family ties also were an essential basis for the cooperation between firms, and a major source of capital. The Wilkens Family The Wilkens brothers were part of the third cohort of Hanseats to arrive in Baltimore, and family ties were no less important to them, than they were to the earlier generations of Bremish merchants in the United States.

The several Wilkens brothers in Bremen and Baltimore were a typical case of the interlocking of family, friendship, and business in Hanseatic circles. Julius Wilkens left Bremen in , when he was around 20 years old. His brothers Friedrich and Heinrich were already in Baltimore.

Heinrich Stein, Klassizismus, vol. He sold apples and tobacco from America, and was asked to give his opinion on the market for crackers. Of these, Wilhelm Wilkens joined his siblings in Baltimore around Apparently he had enough capital to engage in trade with a variety of articles. I will write Fr[iedrich]. When his apprenticeship ended in late , Theodor, too, toyed with the thought of going to America.

Quote from Wilhelm to Julius Wilkens, 3. Julius Wilkens could rely on his friends and family on both sides of the Atlantic for help. Whatever I can contribute on my part to the stimulation of your business, I will certainly be glad to do.

Owing to the large circle of relatives and friends, there was never a shortage of significant events to report. He demonstrated the seamless connections between ties of friendship and business. In Bremen, Knoche and Wilkens shared a wide circle of male acquaintances, both in the world of the counting-house, and that of the tavern. Knoche often updated Wilkens on the recent gossip and social events from that circle.

In the same year, Knoche married Eleonore Wilkens, the sister of his associate. Indeed, the third reason for Julius Wilkens to travel to the old country was to find a wife. If you have been unsuccessful in Bremen I hope that you will be successful at least in your travels, either on the Rhine or at some springs.

When Hanseats in the U. Social events that brought together the mercantile elite served a match-making function. Frisius seems to court his gracious flower Emma Sutro quite a bit, [he] picks her up on Sundays after church etc. Thirty years older than Julius Wilkens, he would have recognized his own experience in that of the younger man. He had a classically Hanseatic array of merchants, aldermen, and Reformed ministers among his ancestors.

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En route to Baltimore through Britain, he had arranged to form a business partnership with a distant Wilhelm to Julius Wilkens, 3. In the twentieth century, there was a prominent family of the same name who owned an entertainment venue in San Francisco. See Scharf, J. Oelrichs, who lived in London. As their two references, the new firm could cite Nicholas Biddle, president of the Bank of the United States, and the brothers Baring, the British merchant-bankers.

On September 9, , he announced his intention to become a citizen of the United States.

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Furthermore, a shared Calvinist faith may have facilitated this union. The Oelrichs, too, were Reformed Protestants. An eighteenth-century ancestor had been the first Reformed minister in the city of Hannover. Hesse, Manchester, 8. Gustav[us] [W. Hidy, Ralph W. Indeed, in , Henry Oelrichs, a brother of E.

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Oelrichs, came to Baltimore to join the firm of E. Emil Hirschfeld, joined the firm. To avoid confusion with the United States legislative body of the same name, the word will be italicized when referring to Bremen. Hidy, House of Baring, p. Gustav W. For the sake of comparison, the two men who were by far the richest members of the Maryland legislature in , the bank president J. Lurman, 2. The most important Hanseatic firm in New York likewise was a tightly-knit family concern. Caspar Meier and his brother, Herman Henrich, together with their descendants, had established this most important dynasty of German-American traders of the nineteenth century, based in Bremen and New York.

Caspar Meier had come to New York in , and worked for an American firm for two years, before establishing himself in his own name. He was joined by his brother, Herman Henrich, in Together, they conducted business in New York as C. Meier from to In the spring of , H. Meier, I.

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  6. The brothers formed a contract between their houses that established the New York and Bremen firms as branches of the same company: Any business done by either party for his own account between Europe and America shall be considered as for joint account. It is therefore agreed that, as an unlimited confidence is to take place, each of the parties shall consent to any shipment made by the other party for the joint account between this place [New York] and Bremen, unless they are of a hazardous nature, it being expected and understood that neither of them would enter into any business which would, reasonably expected, not meet the approbation of the other party.

    It was only allowed to expire at the end of Unless indicated, reference to Herman Henrich, or H. In Baltimore, C. Oelrichs became the senior member of the firm.